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By conducting conceptual to empirical studies in relation to smart tourism, STRC research teams contribute to the academic and practical growth of smart tourism.

Components and layers of smart tourism

Components and Layers of Smart Tourism (Gretzel et al., 2015a)

Smart Tourism Ecosystem

Smart tourism ecosystem refers to a tourism system that uses smart technology to create, manage and deliver smart tourism experiences and is characterized by intensive information sharing and value-added co-creation. Through publication in top-tier journals and conferences, STRC members contribute to defining smart tourism ecosystem and to understanding the role of industries in the smart tourism ecosystem.

Smart Tourism Ecosystem

Smart Tourism Ecosystem (Gretzel et al., 2015b)

Smart Tourism Cities / Destinations

Smart tourism destinations are special cases of smart cities. STRC members extend the concept of smart cities to urban or rural areas and consider not only residents but also tourists to encourage mobility, availability and distribution of services, sustainability and quality of life / visits.

Smart Tourism Cities/Destinations

Conceptual Model of Smart Tourism Cities (Gretzel & Koo, 2021)

The objectives of smart cities generate significant advantages for tourism. Therefore, STRC members conduct studies to provide effective strategies for energy efficiency, improved mobility, and social policies to ensure the safety and well-being of smart tourism destinations for sustainable growth.

Smart Tourism Cities/Destinations

Strategic Complementary Effects of Smart Tourism Cities (Gretzel & Koo, 2021)

Smart Tourism Competitiveness

Our representative studies include a conceptual model of smart tourism destination competitiveness to provide implications in terms of smart tourism destination realization.

Smart Tourism Competitiveness

Conceptual Model of Destination Competitiveness of Smart Tourism (Koo et al., 2016)

The conceptual model integrates the traditional concepts of comparative advantages, seven core attractors and five destination management factors. As a new key attractor in the model, smart technology is included. This conceptual model has been evaluated through feedback from practitioners. Academic researchers have also confirmed the usefulness of the model through empirical and case studies.

Smart Tourism Technology

STRC members have enormous potential to perform innovative research, including artificial intelligence (AI), augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR), 5G, cloud computing, the Internet of Things (IoT), cashless payments, and a variety of sensors (e.g., barometers, geomagnetic sensors, accelerometers, gyros) for more interactive, linked, and efficient smart tourism experience (Chung et al., 2018; Koo et al., 2015).

Social Media for Smart Tourism

Recently, social media, including text messages, images, or videos in real-time, allow travelers participate more effectively in a variety of interactions and tend to trust user-generated contents. Building on STRC’s software foundation, our researchers have actively analyzed the relationship between social media and travel behavior, as tourist today rely on the ubiquity of mobile devices and social media during travel (Chung & Koo, 2015, Chung et al. 2015)


Chung, N., Han, H., & Koo, C. (2015). Adoption of travel information in user-generated content on social media: the moderating effect of social presence. Behaviour & Information Technology, 34(9), 902-919.
Chung, N., & Koo, C. (2015). The use of social media in travel information search. Telematics and Informatics, 32(2), 215-229.
Chung, N., Lee, H., Kim, J. Y., & Koo, C. (2018). The role of augmented reality for experience-influenced environments: The case of cultural heritage tourism in Korea. Journal of Travel Research, 57(5), 627-643.
Gretzel, U., Sigala, M., Xiang, Z., & Koo, C. (2015a). Smart tourism: foundations and developments. Electronic Markets, 25(3), 179-188.
Gretzel, U., Werthner, H., Koo, C., & Lamsfus, C. (2015b). Conceptual foundations for understanding smart tourism ecosystems. Computers in Human Behavior, 50, 558-563.
Koo, C., Gretzel, U., Hunter, W. C., & Chung, N. (2015). The role of IT in tourism. Asia Pacific Journal of Information Systems, 25(1), 99-104.
Koo, C., Shin, S., Gretzel, U., Hunter, W. C., & Chung, N. (2016). Conceptualization of smart tourism destination competitiveness. Asia Pacific Journal of Information Systems, 26(4), 561-576.